This is the third in a series of articles to follow about paper currency – Some have asked what these articles have to do with the Iraqi Dinar investment – Although they may not have a “direct” correlation or relevance in some folk’s opinion - we do find the articles interesting and add to our overall knowledge base –
We will be adding - as we have in the past – more articles for Post RV benefit which will cover investments – security issues – banking – and professional financial advisers info – Thank you for your continued interest and comments – The Recaps Team
What Type of Paper is Money Printed On? By Brian Westover, eHow Contributor
The paper found in dollar bills isn't like the paper in your printer. In one sense, it may not be paper at all. Where most paper is made with wood pulp, the paper found in printed money uses none. Instead, currency paper is mostly made up of cotton and linen, materials more commonly used for making cloth.
This cloth-like paper, sometimes called rag paper to distinguish it from the regular wood-pulp variety, is far more durable than your regular sheet white bond. Since a bill will spend its days being folded, crumpled, and stuffed into pockets, wallets, and machines, this durability is essential.
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The paper used in currency is unique in other ways. The paper used in money serves as more than a printing medium--it's also an important security feature. While the U.S. Treasury department makes no secret about the presence of cotton and linen in money paper, they are likely not the only two ingredients.
When the paper is being made, at least one other ingredient is added to the mix. Fine red and blue thread-like fibers are added in, giving citizens and law enforcement a quick detail to look for when checking out a suspected fake.
In larger denomination bills, another security feature is added--a polyester security strip that is embedded into the paper itself. This strip has microprinting running the length of it, declaring the correct denomination of the bill. Though not visible normally, the strip can be seen by holding the bill up to the light.
The paper also has distinctive physical and chemical properties that make it easier to differentiate between a counterfeit and the real thing. Anti-counterfeit pens, used extensively by retailers and banks, are felt-tipped markers that use a special ink. When marking genuine currency paper, the ink appears light brown or yellow. When marking anything else, such as common printer paper, the mark will be a dark brown that's nearly black.
Spotting a Fake
In addition to the security thread, the blue and red fibers in the paper and the use of color shifting ink, there are also several other security features that make spotting counterfeits easier. The ink used to print a bill gives the printing a raised texture--another distinct tactile feature. That same ink is magnetic. The imagery on either side of the bill includes details too small to print on a regular inkjet printer. In every portrait, extremely small microprinting spells out "The United States of America." Every feature and detail of a bill contain these and other signs of authenticity.
Read more: What Type of Paper is Money Printed On? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5409807_type-paper-money-printed.html#ixzz2IoDNH5Gj
#5 How to Make Paper Out of Coconut Fiber By Jenny Harrington, eHow Contributor
Making your own paper gives you control over the final color and texture. It can then be used in a variety of projects including card-making, scrapbooking and paper art. Coconut fiber, or coir, adds further texture to the paper. Coir is a byproduct of the coconut industry. Made up of the hairlike strands located between a coconut's husk and fruit, it is dark brown and durable. When added to paper it lends a fibrous appearance and texture as well as strengthening the paper.
Instructions - You will need Bowls Scrap Paper & Blender
1 Break apart the chunks of coconut coir and place it in a bowl. Add enough warm water to cover the coir and allow it to soak overnight.
2 Tear paper into 1-inch squares. Use construction paper, tissue paper or any other non-glossy scrap paper you have available. Place this in a separate bowl and cover with warm water. Let it soak overnight.
3 Place one to two handfuls of the soaked paper into a blender. Fill the blender with warm water until it is 2/3 full. Blend until the paper resembles cooked oatmeal, then pour it into a dishpan or shallow plastic tub. Repeat the process two to three more times.
4 Place a handful of the coconut fibers in the dishpan with the paper pulp and mix them together with your hands. Add more warm water if necessary until the mixture resembles a thick soup.
5 Staple a piece of screening material to the back of a picture frame that has the backing and glass removed. Stretch the screen taut while stapling so there are no sagging areas. Set a second frame with the glass and backing removed on top the screened one so the screen is sandwiched between the two frames.
6 Dip the frames into the pulp and fiber mixture while keeping the non-screened frames on top. Hold the frames vertical as you dip them into the mixture, then turn them horizontal once they are submerged. Quickly lift the frames from the pulp. The screen should now be coated in pulp and fibers.
7 Hold the screen over the tub until it is done draining. Remove the empty frame and set aside, then turn the screened frame over onto a flat kitchen towel so the paper is now sitting on the towel with the screen on top of it.
8 Soak up the excess water from the paper with a sponge. Blot the sponge against the screen, wringing out the sponge as necessary. Repeat until the paper begins separating from the screen. Slowly lift the screen frame up, leaving the paper on the towel.
9 Leave the paper to dry overnight. If still damp after 24 hours, hang from a clothesline or replace the towel and let it dry completely.
Tips & Warnings
Coconut coir is available at home and garden stores or in most gardening sections of hardware stores.
Add food coloring or dyes to the pulp mixture to change the paper color.
Push seeds, more coconut fibers or other decorative elements into the sheet of paper as soon as you lift the screen from the tub, if desired.
Mix a packet of gelatin in with the pulp mixture. This prevents ink from running if you plan to write on the paper.
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How Is Paper Currency Made? By Athena Hessong, eHow Contributor
Creating the die
All paper money begins with the making a steel master die, based upon the denomination. These must be carved by engravers working on the steel plates. The changing of the person in the office of the Secretary of Treasury or the Treasurer of the United States is accompanied by a new master die being cut.
The signature of the new officeholder is expanded on a copy sheet. An engraver then replicates the design using a special pen. The engraver's movements are mirrored by a machine which matches the engraver's motions and cuts the signature into the die.
The master die creates the printing plates
The master die must be replicated in order to be able to print sheets of money rather than a single bill at a time. A plastic sheet is placed over the die and heated to get the raised impressions from the die. This is done a total of 32 times. These plastic sheets are then attached together to form a 4-by-8 sheet, known as an alto.
Each sheet of 32 (alto) is then dipped into a tank where copper is electroplated to the surface in a recessed image of the plastic's raised design. The plastic alto is then removed and the copper basso is sent for inspection. If there are no flaws, it is covered in chromium to harden it. Now it is a master printing plate.
Creating the substrate
Each piece of U.S. paper currency is a combination of 75 percent cotton with 25 percent linen. This blank paper currency is known as a substrate. A security thread is inserted between two sheets to allow it to be seen when held to the light. The paper is cut to the same size as the master printing plate to make sheets which will allow for 32 individual bills on each.
The intaglio printing process
Stacks of 10,000 of these substrates are fed into a hopper on the printing line. The master plate is attached to a printing cylinder. Ink covers the master printing plate, and the extra is wiped off, leaving only the ink in the recesses of the printing plate. Each sheet is pressed between the plate and an impression cylinder.
The 15,000 psi of pressure exerted forces the ink in the recess onto the bill. The result is that the ink is slightly raised above the surface of the bill. It takes one hour for the printing press to print one side of the 10,000 sheets fed into the hopper of the machine. The back green color is printed first before allowing to dry for up to 48 hours, and then the front black ink is printed onto the bills.
Serial numbers and the colored printing
Two dried stacks of 10,000 printed bills are fed into the next press. This letterhead press, imprints the color seal of the Treasury and the black serial numbers. The numbers are printed so that once the stacks are completed, the bills will be in sequential order. The finished bills inspected. Should a defect be found, the bill is marked to be removed after cutting, and a bill with the same serial number and a * at the end will be put into its place. These are known as "star notes".
Cutting, stacking, wrapping, and shipping
The completed sheets of bills are stacked 100 high and cut into individual stacks with a blade that cuts straight down through the sheets. Bills marked to be replaced with the star notes are taken out and the star notes put in their place. This keeps the sequential order of the bills.
Each stack of 100 bills gets a paper wrapper. A final visual inspection is given before these stacks are then compiled into a bundle of 10. These bundles are then shrink wrapped together in groups of 4 known as "bricks". These bricks are then shipped to the Federal Reserve agencies and other federal money distribution sites.
Read more: How Is Paper Currency Made? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5250349_paper-currency-made_.html#ixzz2IoKDfxcw